By Earl E. Swartzlander
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Additional resources for VLSI Signal Processing Systems
Also, hardware needs to be created to implement the register stack, including PUSH and POP operations, in addition to hardware to detect and handle stack errors (pushing on a full stack, or popping an empty stack). The benefit comes from a highly simplified ISA. Operands don't need to be specified, because all operations act on specified stack locations. In the diagram at right, "SP" is the pointer to the top of the stack. This is just one way to implement a stack structure, although it might be one of the easiest.
This means that some instructions (typically the arithmetic instructions) will complete quickly, and time will be wasted each cycle. Other instructions (typically memory read or write instructions) will have a much longer propagation delay. As this image shows, an instruction is not over until all 5 components have acted. This means that the length of the cycle must be the length of the longest instruction. The longest path from one end of the processor to the other is called the critical path and is used to determine the cycle time.
Decoder ( inverse functionality of Encoder) can have multiple inputs and depending upon the inputs one of the output signals can go high. For a 2 input decoder there will be 4 output signals. /|- O0 i0---| |- O1 i1---| |- O2 \|- O3 suppose input i is having value 00 then output signal O0 will go high and remaining other threee lines O1 to O3 will be low. In same fashion if i is having value 2 then output O2 will be high and remaining other three lines will be low. Program Counter The Program Counter (PC) is a register structure that contains the address pointer value of the current instruction.