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Chemical Vapor Deposition of Tungsten and Tungsten Silicides by John E.J. Schmitz

By John E.J. Schmitz

This monograph condenses the correct and pertinent literature on blanket and selective CVD of tungsten (W) right into a unmarried conceivable quantity. The publication provides the reader with the required history to increase, fantastic track, and effectively hold a CVD-W approach in a construction set-up. fabrics deposition chemistry, apparatus, method expertise, advancements, and functions are defined.

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Extra resources for Chemical Vapor Deposition of Tungsten and Tungsten Silicides for VLSI/ ULSI Applications

Example text

In this case the roughness of the tungsten is planarized before the etch reaches the oxide level. An additional advantage is that every contact size is allowed. A disadvantage is that the degree of planarization needs to be very high otherwise tungsten strings remain after etch back. Polyimide has been proposed as a candidate for the sacrificial layer. The polyimide can be deposited using a spin on technique similar to resist spinning and is able to give a high degree of planarization. The whole procedure resembles a resist etch back (REB) method for oxide planarization.

8). This amount is roughly equal to the amount of tungsten which would otherwise have been deposited on the surface area now spanned by the trench opening. In fact this has been investigated for hydrogen and silane chemistries [Schmitz et a1. 5 urn wide. It appears that about 90% of the total amount of tungsten which was deposited in the trench was due to redistribution. This high value together with the extreme low sticking coefficient points clearly in the direction that tungsten deposition by CVD cannot be adequately described by a simple line of sight approximation.

19, Builing et a1. 20, Nakanishi et a1. 21 , Smith et a1. 22, Raaijmakers et a1. 23] and was shown to provide appropriate adhesion. 4), thus eliminating completely any problems with (a). An alternative route to form TiN is the nitridation of sputtered Ti. This can easily be incorporated in a Ti based salicide process. An advantage is that a low and repeatable contact resistance can be obtained. WS~ would be a very acceptable candidate with regard to the in situ deposition possibility in the CVD-W reactor.

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