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An Introduction to X-ray Crystallography, Second Edition by Michael M. Woolfson

By Michael M. Woolfson

A textbook for the senior undergraduate or graduate pupil starting a significant examine of X-ray crystallography. it will likely be of curiosity either to these aspiring to turn into specialist crystallographers and to these physicists, chemists, biologists, geologists, metallurgists and others who will use it as a device of their study. All significant points of crystallography are covered--the geometry of crystals and their symmetry, theoretical and functional elements of diffracting X-rays through crystals and the way the information could be analyzed to discover the symmetry of the crystal and its constitution. comprises fresh advances akin to the synchrotron as a resource of X-rays, equipment of fixing constructions from strength information and the entire variety of options for fixing constructions from single-crystal information. laptop courses are supplied for engaging in many operations of data-processing and fixing crystal buildings together with by way of direct equipment. those courses are required for lots of of the examples given on the finish of every bankruptcy yet can be utilized to create new examples in which scholars can try themselves or one another.

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Extra resources for An Introduction to X-ray Crystallography, Second Edition

Sample text

29. The two-dimensional space group p6 as it appears in International Tables for X-ray Crystallography. Hexagonal 6 No. 9 27 Space groups generated. 29. Having established some general characteristics of space groups by the study of some relatively simple two-dimensional examples we shall now look at five three-dimensional space groups where the third dimension introduces complications not found in two dimensions. Triclinic PI This space group is based on a triclinic primitive cell which has a centre of symmetry.

In an experiment by Fiocco and Thompson (1963), illustrated in fig. 9, a 75 mA, 2kV electron beam, magnetically focussed to give an electron density within the beam of 5 x 1015 m~3 was crossed by a beam from a ruby laser. This laser gave a burst of 20 joules of light in about 800 fxs and the light measured by the photomultiplier detector had an intensity about 10 ~ 8 of that of the incident beam. The scattered light was of two types - some was scattered by the electron beam and there was also stray light reflected from the walls of the apparatus.

A pair of threefold axes within the cell is also Fig. 29. The two-dimensional space group p6 as it appears in International Tables for X-ray Crystallography. Hexagonal 6 No. 9 27 Space groups generated. 29. Having established some general characteristics of space groups by the study of some relatively simple two-dimensional examples we shall now look at five three-dimensional space groups where the third dimension introduces complications not found in two dimensions. Triclinic PI This space group is based on a triclinic primitive cell which has a centre of symmetry.

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