This 3rd version of a winning, confirmed textual content presents a concise and well-illustrated creation to the guidelines at the back of, and the practices flowing from the concept of sustainable improvement.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Sustainable Development: 3rd edition (Routledge Perspectives on Development)
However, many international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) are generally disappointed by the lack of speciﬁc monitorable and binding commitments to emerge from the conference. Furthermore, as Middleton and O’Keefe (2003: 30) warn, ‘a third of the period in which these goals are to be achieved has elapsed already and . . so far, there is little sign of change’. However, in addition to the commitment and agreements negotiated by governments in Johannesburg, a new type of partnership was also formalised at the summit, oﬃcially termed ‘Type II outcomes’.
Through the 1970s, what became known as the radical or ‘dependency’ school of thought became dominant in development. This school is perhaps most closely associated with the work of Andre Gunder Frank (1967), a European economist trained in America, but who carried out much research in Central and Latin America. 18 • What is sustainable development? e. the structural disadvantages of these countries and regions. e. in actively creating the problems of underdevelopment. To use Frank’s terminology, development and underdevelopment were two sides of the same coin.
Industrialisation through capitalist growth was seen as the central requirement in order for development to take place and through this strengthening of the material base of society, all countries had an equal chance to develop. , 2004: 94). There was an active role envisaged for the state in creating the conditions needed to achieve ‘take-oﬀ’ (such as setting policy to stimulate local demand and savings) and in setting appropriate rates of taxes. Aspects of these ideas, such as the importance of the free market and the priority given to the European experience, found renewed emphasis in the 1990s within structural adjustment programmes as detailed below.