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A Synchronic and Diachronic Study of the Grammar of the by Yunji Wu

By Yunji Wu

This can be the 1st publication in chinese language linguistics which discusses the grammar of a dialect workforce from either synchronic and diachronic views. the writer makes use of new information and new frameworks to give an research of the grammar of the Xiang dialect spoken in Hunan, China. The discussions during this ebook additionally elevate new matters on dialect study that have now not but been absolutely stated through chinese language dialectologists. in addition, the booklet exhibits that the Xiang dialect staff has an incredible strategic worth because it varieties a transitional area among northern and southern chinese language dialects. Key encompasses a huge paintings at the hugely ignored Xiang dialects in China the 1st particular paintings at the Xiang dialects to seem in English and at the foreign industry a tremendous reference paintings for typological stories

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Additional resources for A Synchronic and Diachronic Study of the Grammar of the Chinese Xiang Dialects

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Twenty guests would be — J R § [r 21 si24tsa24kN"45], in which [si24] corresponds to Mandarin ~t~ shi 'ten'. The word [phau45] can be used as a criterion to identify the Xiang dialects. Map 2 shows the distribution of this word. This word occurs in most of the localities of the Xiang dialect group but is rarely found in other localities. 5. Classifiers (CL) In the Xiang dialects, -φ ge, the most common classifier in Mandarin, is rarely used. The most common classifier in the Xiang dialects is Κ [tsa24], which can be used for human beings and animals and for many objects, such as — [i24 tsa24 Qio24 son33] 'one student', — Κ Φ 'one ox'[i 24 Overview of Xiang grammar 15 tsa 2 \i3u 1 3 ] and — R f & M l [i24tsa24tie45 si45 tqi33] 'one television'.

The number of initial consonants. There were twenty-three initial consonants in the first and second periods (1930s-1960s) of the Changsha dialect but only twenty in the third period (1980s). Four consonants from the first two periods have disappeared and one new consonant has arisen: [tg/ts] > [ts]; [tgh/tsh] > [tsh]; [g/s] >[s]; and [zj > [z] ([z] is a new consonant). The number of finals. There were forty-one finals in the first period, forty-two in the second and thirty-eight in the third.

The latter can also be used to refer to a type of female person, usually with a negative sense. [-lau41kan] is used for different types of people who do not behave well. Τ [-ma41tsi] is used in referring to people who are doing physical work. ψ [-tssu 41 ] is used to refer to a type of person, e . g . S f - [Ii sau ] [insider person] 'a specialist'. It can also be used at the syntactic level to turn a verb into a noun in a negative sentence only, with the meaning 'not worth carrying out a particular action'.

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