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A Obra de Sartre by István Mészáros

By István Mészáros

Initialement publié en 1979 , le livre Le travail de Sartre : l. a. poursuite de los angeles liberté aurait dû avoir un deuxième quantity intitulé Le défi de l'histoire , qui analyserait l. a. perception sartrienne de l'histoire . En raison d'autres projets , y compris le chef-d'œuvre Au-delà de los angeles capitale , István Mészáros était en mesure d'intégrer cette examine que dans cette édition , élargi et mis à jour , le Boitempo fournit au lecteur portugais avant même sa sortie en anglais . Le livre a le mérite de placer Jean- Paul Sartre par rapport à l. a. pensée du XXe siècle et trajectoire d'approche dans toutes ses manifestations - comme un romancier, dramaturge , philosophe et activiste politique . Écrivain était une cible de nombreuses attaques , les assets les plus variées et puissant , comme Sartre : " En 1948 , pas moins que le gouvernement soviétique de Staline prend place officielle contre le philosophe , et dans los angeles même année , un décret spécial du Saint-Office Index met dans toutes ses œuvres » , dit Meszaros . Quelles sont les raisons? Et remark est-il attainable pour une personne seule , avec los angeles plume comme seule arme , est aussi efficace que Sartre à une époque qui have a tendency à faire de l'individu complètement impuissant ? Les écrits du philosophe marxiste non seulement cherchent des réponses , ainsi que de formuler de nouvelles questions sur los angeles vie et l'œuvre de Sartre , l'élucidation de leur contribution au monde . Lorsque demandé récemment à propos de los angeles raison que vous avez décidé d'écrire sur Sartre , Mészáros a répondu: «J'ai toujours senti que les marxistes étaient redevables à lui , parce que nous vivons à une époque où le pouvoir du capital est dominant , une époque où , de manière significative , los angeles résonance platitude politique est que « il n'y a pas d'alternative» . [ ... ] Sartre était un homme qui a toujours prêché tout le contraire : il existe une substitute , il doit y avoir une answer de rechange , tant qu'individus, nous devons nous rebeller contre ce pouvoir . Marxistes , en général , n'ont pas réussi à donner une voix à ce que " . En le disant catégoriquement l' value de Sartre à los angeles formation des nouvelles générations , pas Mészáros défend son choix philosophique , c'est à dire , l'existentialisme , mais partage pleinement leur yet : los angeles nécessité de connaître une rébellion contre le « pas d'alternative» . " Ce livre peut être considéré comme l. a. rencontre de deux attitudes coexistent chez le même auteur et un lien vers ce qui est son objet d'étude : l'affinité politique profonde et énorme désaccord philosophique qui peut être vu dans los angeles relation entre Sartre et Mészáros . Que s'élève au-dessus des controverses conceptuelles est los angeles défense d'une reason , le rachat des espoirs et des attentes plus élevées que les outils doctrinales que nous utilisons pour essayer de les accomplir », dit le professeur de philosophie à l'Université de São Paulo Franklin Leopoldo e Silva oreille dans le livre. Pour Mészáros , l'importance de messages sans compromis sur Sartre besoin de remplacement est plus élevé aujourd'hui qu'il ne l' a jamais été auparavant . Le philosophe français n'a pas vécu pour voir une grande partie de ce temps, les gens se rendent à l'activité des pouvoirs de répression au nom de particularisme et de l'individualisme . Pour cette raison , Sartre est aujourd'hui un mauvais memento essentiel de tout .
Portuguese (Brazil) merely language.

Original portuguese description:
Publicado originalmente em 1979, o livro A obra de Sartre: busca da liberdade deveria ter tido um segundo quantity intitulado O desafio da história, o qual analisaria a concepção sartriana de história. Devido a outros projetos, entre os quais a obra-prima Para além do capital, István Mészáros pôde retomar essa análise somente na presente edição, ampliada e atualizada, que a Boitempo disponibiliza ao leitor de língua portuguesa antes mesmo de seu lançamento em inglês. O livro tem o mérito de situar Jean-Paul Sartre em relação ao pensamento do século XX e abordar sua trajetória em todas as suas manifestações – como romancista, dramaturgo, filósofo e militante político. Escritor algum foi alvo de tantos ataques, de origens as mais variadas e poderosas, quanto Sartre: “Em 1948, nada menos do que o governo soviético de Stalin imagine posição oficial contra o filósofo e, no mesmo ano, um decreto especial do Santo Ofício coloca no Index a totalidade de suas obras”, lembra Mészáros. Quais as razões disso? E como é possível que um indivíduo sozinho, tendo a caneta como única arma, seja tão eficiente como Sartre numa época que tende a tornar o indivíduo completamente impotente? Os escritos do filósofo marxista buscam não apenas as respostas, como também formulam novos questionamentos sobre a vida e a obra de Sartre, elucidando sua contribuição para o mundo. Quando interrogado recentemente sobre o motivo que o levou a escrever sobre Sartre, Mészáros respondeu: “Sempre senti que os marxistas deviam muito a ele, pois vivemos numa period em que o poder do capital é dominador, uma period em que, significantemente, a ressonante platitude dos políticos é que ’não há alternativa‘. [...] Sartre foi um homem que sempre pregou exatamente o oposto: há uma alternativa, deve haver uma alternativa; como indivíduos, devemos nos rebelar contra esse poder. Os marxistas, de modo geral, não conseguiram dar voz a isso”. Ao afirmar tão categoricamente a importância de Sartre para a formação das novas gerações, Mészáros não defende sua escolha filosófica, ou seja, o existencialismo, mas compartilha plenamente de sua meta: a necessidade de uma rebelião contra o saber do “não há alternativa”. “Este livro pode ser visto como o encontro de duas atitudes que convivem num mesmo autor e o vinculam àquele que é o seu objeto de estudo: a profunda afinidade política e a enorme discordância filosófica que se podem constatar na relação entre Mészáros e Sartre. O que se eleva acima das controvérsias conceituais é a defesa de uma causa, o resgate de esperanças e expectativas maiores do que os instrumentos doutrinais que utilizamos para tentar realizá-las”, ressalta o professor de filosofia da Universidade de São Paulo Franklin Leopoldo e Silva na orelha do livro. Para Mészáros, a importância da mensagem intransigente de Sartre sobre a necessária alternativa é maior hoje do que já foi anteriormente. O filósofo francês não viveu para ver grande parte das pessoas engajadas daquela época se render aos poderes da repressão em nome do privatismo e do individualismo. Por esse motivo, Sartre é hoje uma lembrança terrível e ao mesmo pace imprescindível.

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The fundamental laws used in developing theories are expressed in the language of mathematics, the tool that provides a bridge between theory and experiment. When there is a discrepancy between the prediction of a theory and experimental results, new or modified theories must be formulated to remove the discrepancy. Many times a theory is satisfactory only under limited conditions; a more general theory might be satisfactory without such limitations. For example, the laws of motion discovered by Isaac Newton (1642–1727) accurately describe the motion of objects moving at normal speeds but do not apply to objects moving at speeds comparable to the speed of light.

We wish to acknowledge the following scholars and express our sincere appreciation for their suggestions, criticisms, and encouragement: Benjamin C. Bromley, University of Utah; Elena Flitsiyan, University of Central Florida; Yuankun Lin, University of North Texas; Allen Mincer, New York University; Yibin Pan, University of Wisconsin–Madison; N. M. Ravindra, New Jersey Institute of Technology; Masao Sako, University of Pennsylvania; Charles Stone, Colorado School of Mines; Robert Weidman, Michigan Technological University; Michael Winokur, University of Wisconsin–Madison Prior to our work on this revision, we conducted a survey of professors; their feedback and suggestions helped shape this revision, and so we would like to thank the survey participants: Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning.

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