By Regula Christiansen-Bolli
The current learn presents an in depth description of Tadaksahak, a Northern Songhay department of the Nilo-Saharan language crew. it really is spoken via nearly 30,000 humans, consisting usually of the ethnic crew of the Idaksahak who're residing within the East of Mali in addition to in remoted locations in western Niger. The booklet is split into 4 chapters giving a whole evaluation: the 1st brief bankruptcy presents information regarding the historical past of the Idaksahak. within the moment bankruptcy, the phonological gains of the language are defined, whereas the 3rd bankruptcy is devoted to the outline of the morphology of Tadaksahak. it's proven that verbal derivation pulls on unrelated Tamasheq for causative, reciprocal and center in addition to passive. furthermore, any verb root that's of Songhay foundation is suppleted while derived and a semantic similar of Tamasheq starting place takes its position. one other non-Songhay characteristic matters inflection the place the topic pronoun cliticizes to the verb and is often current even if a noun word holds the topic slot. The nominalization method used is dependent upon the etymology of the time period, a function paralleled within the formation of adjectives. The final bankruptcy is devoted to the syntax of the language and offers varieties of noun words. furthermore, the different sorts of easy clauses are taken care of in addition to focalization and topicalization in such clauses. query phrases and supplement clauses together with the 2 attainable relativization innovations also are thought of, whereas the final part approximately complicated sentences offers subordinate clauses. within the appendices texts with glosses, lists of verb roots with their suppletions while derived, a wordlist Tadaksahak-English containing Songhay cognates and an index English-Tadaksahak are given.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language (Mali)
G. [ɐnɐfɐd] ‘tobacco pouch’ <> [ɑṇɑfɑḍ] ‘infection’. Similarly, /i/ is lowered /e/ /a/ /o/ /u/ /ǝ/ to [ɪ] or [e] to [ɛ] to [ɑ] to [ɔ] to [o] to [ʌ] The vowel /a/ shows the widest range of realizations. 1) and examples in the texts. On the whole, unstressed vowels tend to be pronounced as more central and lax so that their quality is not always clear in rapid speech. Yet asking the speaker to slow down will render full Vs where schwa was perceived beforehand. Examples: [bǽːɾǝɾ] baarar ‘child’ [ɔːdǝ] ooda ‘this’ Nicolaï (1979a:342) comments on this fact saying that “Il semble que l’importance et la netteté de réalisation des unités du système consonantique soient corrélatives d’une certaine labilité dans les réalisations des phonèmes vocaliques…”.
18) Long vowel contrasts V i/ii íbatan ízzay ikádan cijí gloss chaff, sp. son fireplace night íibatan íiʒi íikaran ciidí gloss losses fly puppies salt 22 e/ee ee/aa a/aa aa/oo u/uu uu/oo o/oo ténada fever tǝzárcetan rolled leather sweat to be hanging ilánjezan éenar éeɣar strings drums (kind of) antelope, sp. cooking pot téeraɣa kǝreeri tadǝgeera áanar áaɣar heebú market haabú cheese racks eyebrow straw of cram-cram hair tabá áɣaba tamázaq abánaw áarab baaʃí abáaleq áɣaata to taste bit dispute grass, sp.
Horse saddle rope (saddle) night without moon cheeks son / fruit horse saddle to walk to leave alone to cook to walk to leave alone crevice éebǝt ilǝktan dǝgǝffǝt kǝṛǝbǝt agáẓaw ázanzo alákat tabá tus hunán dudú dos anóɣo tafáɣert tadábert oval receptacle pigeon taɣéeɣǝrt dried wood támbǝrt grazing in the héw ténada fér to cry fever to open háw tanáfrit fúr danjé be les dǝzdǝz gloss silence on (PP) make dirty to castrate (kind of) taking quickly (n) branches to give a light hit be joined cheek milk (kind of) twig to taste to erase to leave to flow to touch sickness of skin night (n) to attach suffering to throw 21 Phonological Structure e/o lés to make dirty dós to touch ǝ/a lǝbǝk tǝffak tǝnǝfas kǝrtǝba sǝgǝn dǝzdǝz tǝga meager (n) tomorrow sprinklings trousers to kneel down to castrate (kind of) to be taken tǝffak táafart tǝnúfas tugúdu sóɣon dós toogá tomorrow rope (kind of) stories tree, wood to hobble (knee) to touch T-shirt áɣlal zaná guná tarákat agádod báq amáɣo zará portable trough to churn (milk) to see shrub, sp.