By Duncan O. Okombo, M. Lionel Bender, Franz Rottland
Dholuo (Luo) belongs to the Western Nilotic sub-branch of the Nilotic department of the jap Sudanic relations. Of the Nilotic languages in Kenya basically Dholuo, spoken by way of approximately 2 million humans, belongs to the Western Nilotic workforce. Languages heavily on the topic of it are present in Uganda and the Sudan. Following the theoretical tenets of sensible Grammar, the current quantity is a examine with a two-fold goal: First, it units out to supply a descriptively sufficient account of constituent order in Dholuo; secondly, it investigates the potential of supplying such an account with out utilizing transformational ideas within the feel of structure-changing operations.
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Extra info for A Functional Grammar of Dholuo
It does not help to regard the second interpretation as that of a stative verb because, by so doing, we exclude the possibility of having a sentence such as (59b) which expresses a non-stative situation. Of course, this is a case of something that belongs to the grey area between two grammatical categories and is likely to remain controversial for along time. In this study we take the stand that if a word can predicate a non-stative situation (state of affairs) then it is a verb and not an adjective, even if it also predicates states 36 Dnotuo GRAMMAR in some of its uses?
G. g. l'cl-cause . ‘ . g. - (125) Ere kaka anyalo yudo pesa kawnono ? 6. ADPOSITIONS Linguistic elements have a certain relationship with the non-linguistic world in which a given language exists. This relationship is generally known as reference, in spite of the deﬁnitional problems surrounding the concept. But linguistic elements also have certain relationships with one another in a given uttelrance. ) and referring expressions are called adpositions. They are known as prepositions if they occur before the referring expression in question, and postpositions if they occur after them.
Again, these patterns need to be identiﬁed and clearly stated before we can start discussing such less obvious phenomena as underlying representations. The speciﬁc objectives of this chapter are, therefore, (i) to provide a fairly theory-independent account of Dholuo grammatical categories, and (ii) to determine, in traditional terms, major clause patterns of Dholuo and their occurrence in the various sentence types. This chapter thus contributes to the set goal of our study by outlining the possible grammatical forms and functions that the various constituents of Dholuo sentences take or bear in a given environment.