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A Dictionary of intermediate japanese grammar = Nihongo by Seiichi Makino; Michio Tsutsui

By Seiichi Makino; Michio Tsutsui

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3) I wonder who Homer expected to surprise. These sentences are similar in form but curiously different in meaning. Any competent speaker of English will understand sentence (1) to mean that Homer expected to do the surprising and that he expected to surprise someone other than himself. Sentence (2) contains the identical substring of words Homer expected to surprise him, but it is immediately understood to have a very different meaning. In fact, it has at least two meanings distinct from that of sentence (1): someone 12 Unit 1: What Is Linguistics?

Thus, Maggie crawls has two different derivations under our rules. Homer chased Bart has nine different derivations. And so on. Generating Tree Diagrams There is a useful way of abbreviating the derivations for a sentence produced under a set of rules: with a phrase marker or tree diagram. Suppose we do this: 46 Unit 3: Introducing Phrase Structure Rules 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Write down the symbol S. ”). Write the symbols that appear on the right-hand side of the rule beneath S and connect them to S by lines.

In the next unit, we will look at some basic tools that will assist us in grammar building. UNIT 3 Introducing Phrase Structure Rules Review 1. Syntax studies speakers’ knowledge of the structural arrangement of words and phrases in their language. 2. We capture patterns using categories and their arrangements. 3. Speakers’ knowledge of linguistic patterns must be structured like this. The pattern of its forms! Divide words into categories and state sentence patterns in terms of them! It must define a well-formed sentence in terms of the form and arrangements of smaller constituent bits.

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