By Bulent Gokay
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Ottoman naval expertise underwent a metamorphosis below the rule of thumb of Sultan Selim III. New kinds of crusing warships equivalent to - and three-decked galleons, frigates and corvettes started to dominate the Ottoman fleet, rendering the galley-type oared ships out of date. this era observed technological suggestions corresponding to the adoption of the systematic copper sheathing of the hulls and bottoms of Ottoman warships from 1792-93 onwards and the development of the 1st dry dock within the Golden Horn.
The Republic of Turkey is a rustic of the most important significance bridging the Balkans and the center East, Europe and Asia. regardless of its inhabitants of over 60 million being overwhelmingly Muslim, it has when you consider that its inception been ostensibly an earthly kingdom ruled in line with the precepts of its founder Kernal Ataturk.
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Additional resources for A Clash of Empires: Turkey between Russian Bolshevism and British Imperialism, 1918-1923
However, although the term itself appeared more and more in the texts of the era, the meaning(s) attributed to the term was not always clear or consistent. In 1324/1908, in his Musavver Bulgaristan (Bulgaria Depicted), Captain Ragıb Rıfkı, uses the word Balkan Şeb-i Ceziresi to designate the Balkan Peninsula geographically. 55 The term was not only used as the name of the peninsula, but was also used to refer to a group of states in the ex-Ottoman territories in Europe. As early as 1327/1911, Ahmed Refik uses this word in his school text book prepared for the rüştiye.
Neither of these two authors, however, considers the Ottoman/Turkish aspect of the question. ’ As in 30 OTTOMANS, TURKS AND THE BALKANS English, however, the word can mean both the states and the region in general. It does not mean the Balkan states alone. 3 The word balkan has various meanings within the late nineteenthand early twentieth-century Ottoman context. In the dictionaries of the period, the term balkan means mountain or chain of mountains or mountainous, thus not necessarily being a regional geographical definition.
In the dictionaries of the period, the term balkan means mountain or chain of mountains or mountainous, thus not necessarily being a regional geographical definition. 7 The dictionary definition of the term balkan also appears in the texts of the period. 10 The Balkan mountains were also important strategic geographical locations. 12 The term balkan could also be used in the phrase Balkan Şeb-i Ceziresi, the Balkan Peninsula, here referring to a specific geographical location and not merely the Balkan mountain range.